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3 A Brief History of VLIW Processors

For various reasons which were appropriate at that time, early computers were designed to have extremely complicated instructions. These instructions made designing the control circuits for such computers difficult. A solution to this problem was microprogramming, a technique proposed by Maurice Wilkes in 1951. In a micro programmed CPU, each program instruction is considered a macroinstruction to be executed by a simpler processor inside the CPU. Corresponding to each macroinstruction, there will be a sequence of microinstructions stored in a microcode ROM in the CPU.

Horizontal microprogramming is a particular style of microprogramming where bits in a wide microinstruction are directly used as control signals within the processor. In contrast, vertical microprogramming uses a shorter microinstruction or series of microinstructions in combination with some decoding logic to generate control signals. Microprogramming became a popular technique for implementing the control unit of processors after IBM adopted it for the System/360 series of computers.

Even before the days of the first VLIW machines, there were several processors and custom computing devices that used a single wide instruction word to control several function units working in parallel. However these machines were typically hand-coded and the code for such machines could not be generalized to other architectures. The basic problem was that compilers at that time looked only within basic blocks to extract ILP. Basic blocks are often short and contain many dependences and therefore the amount of ILP that can be obtained inside a basic block is quite limited.

Joseph Fisher, a pioneer of VLIW, while working on PUMA, a CDC-6600 emulator was frustrated by the difficulty of writing and maintaining 64 bit horizontal microcode for that processor. He started investigating a technique for global microcode compaction--a method to generate long horizontal microcode instructions from short sequential ones. Fisher soon realized that the technique he developed in 1979, called trace scheduling, could be used in a compiler to generate code for VLIW like architectures from a sequential source since the style of parallelism available in VLIW is very similar to that of horizontal microcode. His discovery lead to the design of the ELI-512 processor and the Bulldog trace-scheduling compiler.

Two companies were founded in 1984 to build VLIW based mini supercomputers. One was Multiflow, started by Fisher and colleagues from Yale University. The other was Cydrome founded by VLIW pioneer Bob Rau and his colleagues. In 1987, Cydrome delivered its first machine, the 256 bit Cydra 5, which included hardware support for software pipelining. In the same year, Multiflow delivered the Trace/200 machine, which was followed by the Trace/300 in 1988 and Trace/500 in 1990. The 200 and 300 series used a 256 bit instruction for 7 wide issue, 512 bits for 14 wide issue and 1024 bits for 28 wide issue. The 500 series only supported 14 and 28 wide issue. Unfortunately, the early VLIW machines were commercial failures. Cydrome closed in 1988 and Multiflow in 1990.

Since then, VLIW processors have seen a revival and some degree of commercial success. Some of the notable VLIW processors of recent years are the IA-64 or Itanium from Intel, the Crusoe processor from Transmeta, the Trimedia media-processor from Philips and the TMS320C62x series of DSPs from Texas Instruments. Some important research machines designed during this time include the Playdoh from HP labs, Tinker from North Carolina State University, and the Imagine stream and image processor currently developed at Stanford University.


next up previous contents
Next: 4 Defoe: An Example Up: Very Large Instruction Word Previous: 2 Different Flavors of   Contents
Binu K. Mathew