The difficulty of programming VLIW processors by hand should be evident even from the simple Defoe programming examples. One reason programming VLIWs is more difficult than writing code for a super scalar processor is that the program for a super scalar processor is inherently sequential and it is left to the hardware to extract parallelism from the sequential program. On the other hand, when generating code for a VLIW processor, the assembly language programmer or the compiler is faced with the task of extracting parallelism from a sequential algorithm and scheduling independent operations concurrently. For this reason, instruction scheduling algorithms are critical to the performance of a VLIW processor. We next describe three important scheduling algorithms starting with the classic trace scheduling algorithm.